Anal Cancer

Anal Cancer Fig
Anal Cancer


Anal cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. Anal canal, feces leave your body, through which is a short tube at the end of your rectum.

Anal cancer, can cause signs and symptoms such as rectal bleeding and anal pain.

Most of the people of anal cancer has been treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Increases the likelihood of a cure combining treatment of anal cancer, combination treatment also increases the risk of side effects


It contains of anal cancer signs and symptoms

  • Bleeding from the anus and rectum
  • Pain in the anal area
  • Mass or growth in the anal canal
  • Anal itching

When you will see a doctor:

Especially if you have any of the elements that increase the risk of anal cancer, consult your doctor about your disturbing signs and symptoms



Normal to abnormal cell genetic variation, of anal cancer in on the healthy cell morphology. Healthy cells, dead to finally set the time, to grow, and then multiplied by the set ratio. Abnormal cells to grow, out of control over, and they will not die. Accumulation abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissue, in order to spread to other places in the body (metastasis), it can be separated from the first tumor.

Anal cancer is associated with the human papilloma virus is closely referred to as sexually transmitted infections (HPV). Evidence of HPV is detected in the majority of anal cancer. HPV is believed to be the most common cause of anal cancer


Risk factors:

Some of the factors, have been found to enhance the anal cancer risk

Older age

Most cases of anal cancer will occur in the more than 50-year-old man.

Many sexual partners

People who have a lot of sexual partners over a lifetime, of anal cancer risk is higher.

Anal sex

Engaged in anal sex people, is high anal cancer risk


Smoking cigarettes, you can increase the anal cancer risk

History of cancer

People who have had uterine cervix, a cancer of the vulva and vagina, increases of anal cancer risk.

Human papilloma virusĀ (HPV)

HPV infection increases the risk of some cancers, including anal cancer and cervical cancer. HPV infection also can cause genital warts is a sexually transmitted disease.

Drag or suppress conditions the immune system.

Including persons who have undergone organ transplant, the immune system (immunosuppressant), people who take the drug in order to prevent, you can have an increase in anal cancer risk. HIV – the virus that causes AIDS – to suppress the immune system, increases the anal cancer risk.


Anal cancer is not nearly spread to distant parts of the body to the (transition). The small percentage of tumors have been found to have a spread, what to do, especially difficult to treat. In general, most of the transition anal cancer will spread to the liver and lung



Include the use tests and procedures to diagnose anal cancer

Examine your anal canal and rectum for abnormalities

During the digital rectal examination, your doctor is wearing gloves in your rectum, and insert the lubricated finger. He or she is, such as such growth, unusual things, I feel for.

Visually inspect the anal canal and rectum

In order to inspect your anal canal and rectum for anything your doctor abnormal, short, you can use the lighting tube (anoscope).

Take your anal canal ultrasound images (ultrasound)

To create an image of your anal canal, your doctor is your anal canal and rectum, and insert a probe similar to the thick of the thermometer. The probe, the high-energy sound waves, called ultrasound waves bounce off the tissues and organs of your body in order to create the image, and then release. The doctor will evaluate the picture to look for something abnormal.

Remove the sample of tissue for clinical testing

If your doctor has discovered an unusual area, he or she takes a small sample of the affected tissue (biopsy), you can send a sample to the laboratory for analysis. The cells are able to see the cells under a microscope whether it is cancerous, it can be determined by the physician.



Once you have been confirmed to have anal cancer, your doctor works to determine the size of the cancer, whether it has spread – a process called staging. To determine your cancer stage, your doctor will help you determine the best way to treat your cancer

It will include tests and procedures that are used in your staging of cancer

  • Computer tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)

Your doctor uses the information from the procedures to assign your cancer stage. There is a stage of anal cancer

Stage 1

For the following size peanuts – to anal cancer 2 centimeters (about 3/4 inch) is the following.

Stage 2

To anal cancer is larger than two centimeters (about 3/4 inch), it does not spread beyond the anal canal.

Stage 3A

Anal cancer is any size, such bladder, as the urethra and vagina, has spread to any of the lymph nodes near the rectum and the surrounding area

Stage 3B

Anal cancer is, in any size, has spread to the surrounding area and the lymph nodes, or it has spread to other lymph nodes in the pelvis.

Stage 4

Anal cancer has spread to parts of the body from the pelvis away.



What kind of treatment your cancer that you receive for anal cancer, will depend on your overall health and stage favorite of your own

Combination chemotherapy and radiation:

The doctor will usually treat anal cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Combined, these two processes, to strengthen each other, and increase the possibility of healing

chemical treatment

Chemotherapeutic drug is taken as an injection or tablet into a vein. Chemicals, cells that grow rapidly, such as cancer cells, kill, and go to your whole body. Unfortunately, they also, in your digestive tract, including your hair follicles, will damage the rapidly healthy cells to grow. To do this, it causes side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hair loss.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is to kill cancer cells, use the high-power beam of X-rays or protons or the like. During radiation therapy, you’re positioned on to direct the radiation beam to a specific area of your body to target your cancer, tables and large machine around you to move

Radiation, you may beam from damaging the nearby healthy tissue of the location that is the purpose. Side effects, with redness and erosion of the skin, as well as around your anus, cured to, you can include a reduction in the anal canal.

Typically, you receive radiation therapy five or six weeks of anal cancer. Chemotherapy, typically, it will be administered during the first week and 5 weeks. The doctor is used to adjust the treatment schedule based on the characteristics of the overall health of you and cancer.

The combination of chemotherapy and radiation increases the effectiveness of the two treatments, it also increases the likelihood of side effects. What you discuss with your doctor side effects to expect.


The doctor is usually based on the stage of the cancer, in order to remove the anal cancer, you can use a different procedure

Surgery to remove the early anal cancer

Very small anal cancer can be removed by surgery. During this procedure, the surgeon removes a small amount of the tumor and the healthy tissue surrounding it.


Because the tumor is small, early stage cancer can often be removed without damaging the anal sphincter surrounding the anal canal. As physicians work in order to maintain an intact muscle, the anal sphincter controls the movement of the intestine.

Depending on your cancer, the doctor also, you can recommend chemotherapy and radiation therapy after surgery

Surgery of late anal cancer and anal cancer that does not respond to other treatment

If you are a cancer that did not respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy, if your cancer is advanced, or, a more extensive operation is your doctor is sometimes referred to as the belly resection called AP resection, recommendation can. During this procedure, the surgeon, anal canal, and removing a portion of the rectum and colon. The surgeon then, leaving waste your body, and then collects the colostomy bag it through the opening of your abdomen (stoma) accompanying the rest of your colon.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical care focused on providing relief from other symptoms of pain and serious illness. In order to experts of palliative care is to provide an extra layer of support to complement your ongoing care, you, will work with your family and your other doctors. Such a surgery, you can use the palliative care while receiving the other of aggressive treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Palliative care, when used in conjunction with all the other appropriate treatment, people with cancer may live feel good, longer.

Palliative care is provided physician, by a team of specialists who received the nurses and other special training. Palliative care team, we aim to improve the people’s quality of life with cancer and their families. In this form of care, it has been provided with the curative or other treatment can be received.

Alternative medicine

Treatment of alternative medicine, you can not cure anal cancer. However, in the treatment of some of the alternative medicine, it can help you to deal with the side effects of cancer treatment. The doctor is able to treat many of the side effects, and sometimes medicine is not enough. Alternative treatments, can complement the treatment of your doctor, it may provide additional comfort.

Option is included for common side effects


Massage, meditation, hypnosis, music therapy, exercise and relaxation techniques


Gentle exercise and Tai Chi


Acupuncture, hypnosis and music therapy


Acupuncture, massage, music therapy and hypnosis

Sleep problems

Yoga and relaxation techniques

These options are generally safe, but of alternative medicine option, you must first talk with your doctor to make sure that does not interfere with your cancer treatment.





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