Breast Cancer

0
760
breast cancer Image
breast_cancer

Overview:

Breast cancer is a form of cancer in the breast cells.

After skin cancer, breast cancer is the diagnosis most common cancer in US women. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it comes at a far more common woman.

Substantial support for awareness and research funds for breast cancer, helping to improve the progress of screening and diagnosis in the treatment of breast cancer. The survival rate is increasing of breast cancer, the number of deaths is steadily such early detection, this is largely due to a number of factors as a better understanding of the new personalized approach and the disease to treatment, it has declined .

Symptoms:

  • Lump or thickening of the different feel the breast and surrounding tissue
  • The size of the breast, change the shape or appearance
  • Changes to the skin over the breast as such dimple,
  • Newly inverted nipple
  • Or surrounding the scaling and skin nipple (areola), peeling of the pigmented area of the skin of the breast, peeling
  • Pitting of the skin over the redness or your chest as orange peel,

Causes:

The doctor, you know that breast cancer occurs when some breast cancer cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells form a lump or mass, than I continue to more quickly healthy cells and accumulation, and then split. Cells are likely to spread to your lymph nodes, or to other parts of your body through your chest (metastasis).

Breast cancer, in most cases, will begin in cells in the milk production duct (invasive ductal carcinoma). Breast cancer is also, you can start in small leaves (invasive lobular carcinoma) or other cells or tissue in the breast cancer that is referred to as the glandular tissue.

The researchers, hormones that can increase the risk of breast cancer, the life style and environmental factors were identified. Develop a part of the people is a cancer that does not have a risk factor, why not never other people who still have a risk factor, however, it is not clear. This is considered to breast cancer and your genetic makeup, is caused by a complex interaction of the environment

Inherited breast cancer:

Doctors has estimated that about 5-10% of breast cancers are linked to a gene mutation which has passed through the generations family.

The number of inherited mutant gene can increase the likelihood of breast cancer have been identified. The most common in both breast cancer gene 1 is to increase considerably both the risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), is.

If you have a strong family history of breast cancer or other cancer, the physician to recommend a blood test that can help to identify the specific mutation of other genes that have been passed through the BRCA or your family I can.

Can check the health history of your family, please consider that you ask your doctor to introduce the genetic counselor. Genetic counselors also, advantages and you, to discuss the limits of risk and genetic testing, we can guide you in the appropriate genetic testing.

Risk factors:

Risk factors for breast cancer, it is more likely is what you do that you’ll get breast cancer. However, to have a risk factor of one or several of breast cancer, does not necessarily mean that you would develop breast cancer. Many women who develop breast cancer do not have a known risk factor other than the woman who simply.

Being:

Women are than men are far more likely to develop breast cancer.

Increasing age:

Increased risk of breast cancer as you age.

Personal history of breast cancer:

If you have had breast cancer in one breast, is a high risk of developing cancer in the other breast

Family history of breast cancer:

If your mother, sister or daughter has been diagnosed with breast cancer, especially at a young age, the risk of breast cancer is increased. Still, the majority of people who have been diagnosed with breast cancer do not have a family history of the disease.

Inherited gene increase the risk of cancer:

Specific gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer, can be passed from parent to child. The most common gene mutations, are called BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can be increased significantly of breast cancer and other cancer risk, they are not that the cancer can not be avoided.

Radiation exposure:

If you receive radiation therapy to your chest as children and young adults, the risk of breast cancer is increased.

Obesity:

It is obesity increases the risk of breast cancer

The beginning of your period at a young age:

The start of the period to 12 years ago, increases the risk of breast cancer.

Start the menopause in old age:

If you want to start the menopause in old age are more likely to develop breast cancer

You have your first child at the age:

Women who give birth to a first child after the age of 30 you can have an increased risk of breast cancer

Was not pregnant:

Woman has never been pregnant are at greater risk of breast cancer than women I had one or more of pregnancy

Postmenopausal hormone therapy:

Women who take hormone therapy drug that is a combination of estrogen and progesterone to treat the symptoms of menopause signs and have a higher breast cancer risk. Women risk of breast cancer is reduced when you stop taking these drugs

Drink alcohol:

Alcohol beverages, increases the risk of breast cancer

Diagnosis:

The tests and procedures breast cancer, used to diagnose

Breast examination:

The doctor, feeling for any lumps or other abnormalities, and check both of your breast and the lymph nodes in the armpit.

Mammogram:

Mammogram is an X-ray of the breast. Mammogram is used to generally screened for breast cancer. If an abnormality is detected on the screening mammogram, the doctor further, you can recommend a diagnostic mammogram to evaluate the anomaly.

Breast ultrasound:

Ultrasound uses sound waves to generate a structural image of the deep within the body. Ultrasound lump of new breast is obtained is used to determine whether a cyst filled with solid mass or a liquid

Delete the sample of breast cells for testing (biopsy):

Biopsy is the only sure way to make a diagnosis of breast cancer. Cell is sent the biopsy sample to the laboratory for analysis to the case to determine the expert whether it is cancerous. Biopsy samples are breast cancer, are analyzed to determine the type of cells involved in malignancy (grade), hormone receptors Cancer cells can affect your treatment options or other receptors whether has.

Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

MRI apparatus, in order to create an image of an interior of your chest, uses magnets and radio waves. Before breast MRI, you will receive an injection of dye.

Treatment:

Doctor breast cancer, its stage and grade, based on your type of size, to determine the choice of treatment of breast cancer, whether or not cancer cells are sensitive to hormones. The doctor also takes into account your own taste and your overall health.

Most of the women, received a breast cancer surgery, also, chemotherapy, as hormone therapy or radiation, subject to additional processing before or after surgery.

There there are many options for treatment of breast cancer, as you perform complex decisions about your treatment, you may feel overwhelmed. Consider seeking a second opinion from a breast specialist in breast centers and clinics. Talk to other women who are facing the same decision

Surgery for breast cancer:

Removing the breast cancer (lumpectomy):

During also lumpectomy it is referred to as a breast-conserving surgery or wide local excision, the surgeon, and eliminate a small margin of healthy tissue of the tumor and the surrounding. Lumpectomy is reserved for the general small tumor

Remove the entire breast (mastectomy):

Mastectomy is an operation to remove all of your breast tissue. Including the nipple and areola (simple mastectomy), small leaves, duct, adipose tissue, and some of the skin – most of the mastectomy procedure, remove all of the breast tissue

In the skin-sparing mastectomy, the skin on the breast, has as it is left in order to improve the re-configuration and appearance. Depending on the position and size of the tumor, it can escape even nipples.

Removal of a limited number of lymph nodes (sentinel lymph node biopsy):

To cancer to determine whether has spread to your lymph nodes, your surgeon will discuss the role of removing the first in a lymph node that has received the lymph drainage with you from your tumor.

If any cancer has not been found in these lymph nodes, the possibility of finding any of the cancer of the rest of the lymph nodes are small, there is no need to remove the other node.

Some of the lymph nodes to be removed (axillary lymph node dissection):

If the cancer is found in the sentinel lymph node, your surgeon will discuss the role to remove additional lymph nodes in your armpit and you

Remove the both breasts:

Some women of cancer in one breast, if they are very risk of cancer in the other breast of a genetic predisposition or a strong family history is higher for (the opposite side of prophylactic mastectomy) Other (health) you can choose to remove the breast.

Most of the women with breast cancer in one breast, it does not have to develop cancer in the other breast. Along with the benefits and risks of this procedure, we talk about your doctor and your breast cancer risk.

Complications of surgery for breast cancer, will depend on the selected procedure. Surgery for breast cancer, carries pain, bleeding, the risk of infection, (lymphedema) swelling arm.

Some women will choose to have breast reconstruction after surgery. With your surgeon, will discuss the setting and your options.

Please consider a referral to a plastic surgeon before your breast cancer surgery. Your option is to use your own organization, is the breast implant may also include a reconstruction and (silicone or water) or reconstruction. These operations can be done at the time or at a later date your mastectomy.

Radiation therapy:

Radiation therapy is to kill cancer cells, use the high-output beam of energy, such as X-rays or protons. Radiation therapy is typically done using a large machine with the aim of energy beam in your body (external beam radiation). However, the radiation also can be done by placing radioactive material inside your body (brachytherapy).

External beam radiation is commonly used after lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer. The doctor also can recommend radiation therapy to the chest wall after mastectomy for large breast cancer and cancer than has spread to the lymph nodes.

Side effects of radiation therapy are fatigue and radiation is the purpose, will include red, such as sunburn rash. Breast tissue is also, it may appear swollen or more of the company. In rare cases, more – serious problems, heart and lung and in such a treatment area, very rare, as damage to the secondary cancer, may not occur.

chemical treatment:

Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. Or your cancer is back, when there is a high risk of spread to other parts of your body, the doctor will be able to recommend chemotherapy in order to reduce the likelihood of cancer recurrence. This is known as adjuvant chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy, sometimes, has been given before surgery in women with larger breast tumors. The goal is to shrink the tumor to make it easier to be removed by surgery size.

Chemotherapy is also used in women has spread to other parts of the cancer already body. Chemotherapy, to control the cancer, it can recommend that you try to reduce any of the symptoms the cancer is causing.

Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drugs you receive. Common side effects, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, contains the risk of developing the infection. The rare side effects, very rare premature menopause, infertility (in the case of pre-menopausal), heart, kidney, damage to the nerve damage, and can contain a blood cell cancer.

Hormone therapy:

Hormone therapy – is perhaps more known as the appropriate hormone deprivation therapy – is, in many cases, will be used to treat breast cancer that is sensitive to the hormone. The doctor from time to time, estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor positive (PR positive) such as cancer, please refer to these cancers.

Hormone therapy, can be used before or after the surgery or other treatment cancer reduces the likelihood of return. If the cancer has already spread, hormone therapy, deflated, you can control it.

Medicine that blocks the hormone that adhere to cancer cells:

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) drugs, and slow the growth of tumors adhering to estrogen receptors on cancer cells, and act by blocking estrogen killing tumor cells.

SERM is tamoxifen, raloxifene (Evista), and toremifene (Fareston).

Possible side effects, hot flashes, contains the drying of night sweats and vaginal. Details – serious risks, including blood clotting, stroke, uterine cancer and cataracts

Stop drug the body from making estrogen after menopause:

Aromatase inhibitors, called, these agents will block the action of an enzyme that converts androgens in the body to estrogen. These drugs are effective in postmenopausal women.

Aromatase inhibitors, anastrozole (Arimidex), it will include letrozole (Femara) and exemestane (Aromasin) is side effects are hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, as well as pain in the joints and muscles, it will include an increase in the risk of bone thinning (osteoporosis).

Drug to the estrogen receptor for destruction and target:

Estrogen receptor drug fulvestrant in cells to cancer cells, and the signal (Faslodex) blocks, will destroy the receptor. Fulvestrant is used in post-menopausal women. Side effects that can occur will include hot flashes and joint pain.

Surgery and drug therapy will stop ovarian hormone production:

In premenopausal women, surgery to remove the ovaries and medicine to stop the ovaries from making an effective hormone therapy can be estrogen.

Targeted drugs:

Targeted drug therapy, it can attack a specific abnormality in the cancer cells. Target drugs, to breast cancer, and used to treat

Trastuzumab (Herceptin):

Some of breast cancer, add an excess amount of a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 to help in the growth and survival of breast cancer cells (HER2). Your breast cancer cells, when performing many of HER2 too, trastuzumab, help block the protein, the cancer cells are likely to die. Side effects can include headaches, diarrhea and heart problems.

Pertuzumab (Perjeta):

Pertuzumab, a HER2 targeted, for use in metastatic breast cancer in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy have been approved. This combination of treatment, is still reserved for women who have not received the other drug treatment for their cancer. Side effects of pertuzumab, diarrhea, hair loss, and can include heart failure.

Commotion – trastuzumab (Kadcyla):

This medicine combines a cell-killing drugs and trastuzumab. When the combination drug enters the body, trastuzumab, because it is attracted to the HER2, it will be able to find the cancer cells. Cytotoxic drugs will then be released into the cancer cells. Commotion – Trastuzumab is already may be an option for women with metastatic breast cancer that tried trastuzumab and chemotherapy.

Lapatinib (Tykerb):

Lapatinib, a HER2 targeted, is used in advanced or metastatic breast cancer has been approved. Lapatinib, can be used in combination with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Potential side effects, including diarrhea, limbs painful, nausea, and the heart of the problem

PalbociclibIbrance):

Palbociclib has been used in conjunction with an aromatase inhibitor in women of advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Side effects are infections may include increased risk of fatigue and nausea

Everolimus (Afinitor):

Everolimus, and the pathways involved in the growth of cancer cells and the target. It is used in combination with exemestane in women with advanced breast cancer. Side effects can include stomatitis, infections, an increased risk of rashes and lung failure.

Supportive (palliative) care:

Palliative care is specialized medical care focused on providing relief from other symptoms of pain and serious illness. In order to experts of palliative care is to provide an extra layer of support to complement your ongoing care, you, will work with your family and your other doctors. Such a surgery, you can use the palliative care while receiving the other of aggressive treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Palliative care, when used in conjunction with all the other appropriate treatment, people with cancer may live feel good, longer.

Palliative care is provided physician, by a team of specialists who received the nurses and other special training. Palliative care team, we aim to improve the people’s quality of life with cancer and their families. In this form of care, it has been provided with the curative or other treatment can be received.

Alternative medicine:

No alternative medicine treatment is not found to treat breast cancer. However, treatment of complementary and alternative medicine, when combined with your doctor’s care, can help you to deal with the side effects of treatment.

Survivors of a lot of breast cancer, it is possible to continue medium and year, will experience fatigue after treatment. When combined with your doctor’s care, treatment of complementary and alternative medicine, it may help to alleviate fatigue.

 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here