Cataracts

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Definition

Cataracts are the clouds of transparent lenses in your eyes. For those with cataracts, looking at a cloudy lens is like seeing frost and cloudy windows. Sight problems due to cataracts make it difficult to drive cars, drive cars, and watch your friends’ face, especially at night.

Most cataracts progress slowly and do not interfere with visual acuity at an early stage. However over time, cataracts will eventually affect your vision.

Initially, stronger lighting and glasses will help you deal with cataracts. However, if visual impairment interferes with your normal activity, cataract surgery may be necessary. Fortunately, cataract surgery is generally safe and effective surgery.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of cataract include:

  • Cloudy, blurry, or dark vision
  • Increased night vision impairment
  • Sensitivity to light and dazzling
  • Bright light is necessary for reading and other activities
  • See “Hello” around the light
  • Frequent change of prescription of glasses or contact
  • lenses
  • Color discoloration or yellowing
  • Double vision with one eye

Initially, the cloudiness of your vision due to cataracts may only affect a small part of the lens of the eye, you may not know the loss of vision. As cataract grows it will cloud more of your lens and distort the light passing through the lens. This can lead to more noticeable symptoms.

When going to see a doctor

If you notice changes in vision, please make an ophthalmic examination reservation. If sudden visual acuity changes such as double vision, flashing light, sudden eye pain, sudden headache, etc., consult a doctor immediately.

Causes

Most cataracts develop when aging or injury changes the tissue that constitutes the lens of the eye.

Some of the genetic disorders that cause other health problems may increase the risk of cataract. Cataracts can also be caused by other ocular conditions, past eye surgery or medical conditions such as diabetes. If you use steroids for a long time, cataracts may develop.

How cataracts work

The lens in which the cataract is formed is located behind the colored portion (iris) of the eye. The lens collects the light coming into your eyes and creates a clear and clear image on the retina. This is a light sensitive membrane in the eyes that act like a camera film.

As you get older, the flexibility of the lens of your eye will be lower and the transparency will be lower. Due to aging and other pathological conditions, tissues within the lens are destroyed, become lumps together, and small areas within the lens become cloudy.

As cataracts continue to progress, cloudiness becomes denser and includes larger parts of the lens. Cataracts are scattered as they pass through the lens to block light and prevent clearly defined images from reaching the retina. As a result, your vision will be blurred.

Cataracts generally develop in both eyes, but do not develop uniformly. A cataract in one eye may be more advanced than the other eye, resulting in a difference in visual acuity between the eyes.

Kind of cataract

Types of cataracts are as follows:

Cataract affecting the center of the crystalline lens (nuclear cataract).

Nuclear cataracts may initially cause more myopia or temporarily improve reading vision. However, over time, the lens gradually turns dark yellow and the visibility gets even more cloudy.

As the cataract proceeds slowly, the lens turns brown. Advanced yellowing or browning of the lens makes it difficult to distinguish shades of colors.

Cataract affecting the edge of the lens (cortical cataract).

Cortical cataract begins as a white wedge-shaped opaque or striped pattern on the outer edge of the lens cortex. As it slowly advances, the stripes extend to the center and interfere with light passing through the center of the lens.

Cataract affecting the back of the crystalline lens (posterior subcapsular cataract).

Subcapsular cataract usually begins as a small opaque area formed behind the lens, on the right side of the light path.Posterior subcapsular cataract disturbs reading vision, diminishes vision with bright light, causing dazzling and halos around the light at night. These types of cataracts tend to proceed faster than other types.

Cataract you were born (congenital cataract).

Some people are born with cataracts and develop cataracts in childhood. These cataracts can be hereditary or can be associated with intrauterine infection or trauma.

These cataracts can also be due to certain conditions such as myotonic dystrophy, galactosemia, neurofibromatosis type 2 or rubella. Congenital cataract does not always have an impact on vision, but in such cases it will usually be removed immediately after detection.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase the risk of cataract include the following:

  • Age increase
  • Diabetes
  • Excessive exposure to sunlight
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Previous eye injury or inflammation
  • Previous ophthalmic surgery
  • Long-term use of corticosteroid drugs
  • Drink excess alcohol

 

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