Gastric cancer is a cancer that occurs in the abdomen, a muscle sac that is located just above the ribs, above the abdomen. Your stomach will accept the food you eat and will help you to disassemble and digest it.
Another term for gastric cancer is stomach cancer. These two terms often refer to gastric cancer beginning with mucus-producing cells on the inner layer of the stomach (adenocarcinoma). Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of gastric cancer.
In the United States, gastric cancer is rare, and the number of people diagnosed with this disease each year is decreasing. Stomach cancer is more common in other parts of the world.
For gastric cancer signs and symptoms,
- Feeling hypertrophic after eating
- Satisfaction after eating a small amount of food
- Severe and permanent heartburn
- Severe and unobtrusive indigestion
- A nausea that can not be explained patiently
- Stomach pain
- Persistent vomiting
- Unintended weight loss
The cause of a stomach cancer by a doctor is unknown. There is a strong correlation between smoking and diet with high salinity and stomach cancer. As the use of refrigerators to store food increases worldwide, the incidence of gastric cancer has declined.
In general, cancer begins when an error (mutation) occurs in the DNA of a cell. Mutations rapidly proliferate and divide cells and continue to live when normal cells die. Accumulating cancer cells form tumors that may invade nearby structures. Also, cancer cells may break from the tumor and spread throughout the body.
Types of stomach cancer
Tumor-forming cells determine the type of gastric cancer. The type of cell of your stomach cancer will help you decide your treatment options. Types of gastric cancer include the following
Cancer that begins with glandular cells (adenocarcinoma)
Glandular cells that cover the inside of the stomach secrete a protective layer of mucus, protecting the inner layer of the stomach from acidic digestive fluids. Adenocarcinoma accounts for the majority of all gastric cancers.
Cancer that begins with immune system cells (lymphoma)
The wall of the stomach contains a small number of immune system cells that may develop cancer. Lymphoma of the stomach is rare.
Cancer that begins with hormone-producing cells (carcinoid cancer)
Hormone-producing cells may develop carcinoid cancer. Stomach carcinoid cancer is rare.
Cancer that begins with nervous system tissue
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) begins with certain neural cells found in your stomach. GIST is a form of rare gastric cancer.
Since other types of gastric cancer are rare, when people use the term “gastric cancer” it generally refers to adenocarcinoma.
- High meal of salt and smoked food
- Meals with few fruits and vegetables
- Eat food contaminated with aflatoxin
- Family history of stomach cancer
- Infection by Helicobacter pylori
- Long-term stomach inflammation
- Pernicious anemia
- Gastric polyp
The tests and procedures used to diagnose gastric cancer include
A small camera (upper endoscope) to see the inside of your stomach
A thin tube with a small camera will pass under your throat and enter your stomach. Your doctor can look for signs of cancer. If a suspicious part is found, tissue pieces can be collected and analyzed (biopsy).
Imaging tests used to examine gastric cancer include computed tomography (CT) scans and sometimes special types of x-ray examination called barium swallowing.
Determination of the extent (stage) of gastric cancer
Your stomach cancer stage will help the doctor to decide which treatment is best for you. The tests and procedures used to determine the stage of cancer include:
Testing can include CT and positron emission tomography (PET).
Your doctor recommends surgery to look for signs that cancer is spreading across the stomach in the abdomen. Exploration surgery is usually performed laparoscopically. This means that the surgeon makes some small incisions in your abdomen and inserts a special camera to transmit images to the operating room monitor.
Stage of gastric cancer
At this stage, the tumor is confined to the layer of tissue covering the inside of the stomach. Cancer cells may also spread to a limited number of nearby lymph nodes.
Cancer at this stage spreads deeper and grows to the muscular layer of the stomach wall. Cancer may spread to many lymph nodes as well.
At this stage, the cancer may grow through all the layers of the stomach and spread to nearby structures. Alternatively, it may be a smaller cancer that spreads more widely in lymph nodes.
At this stage it is shown that the cancer is spreading far from the body.
The treatment of stomach cancer depends on the stage of cancer, overall health condition, preference
The goal of surgery is to get rid of all of gastric cancer and healthy tissue if possible. Options are included
Removal of early stage tumors from the gastric lining
Very small cancers confined to the inner layer of the stomach can be removed using an endoscope in a procedure called endoscopic mucosal ablation. The endoscope is a lighted tube with a camera passed through the stomach under the throat. The doctor uses special tools to remove the edges of cancer and healthy tissue from the inner layer of the stomach.
Remove part of stomach (total gastrectomy)
During partial gastrectomy, the surgeon removes only a portion of the stomach affected by the cancer.
Remove whole stomach (whole gastrectomy)
Total gastrectomy involves removing the entire stomach and the entire surrounding tissue. The esophagus is connected directly to the small intestine and moves the food through the digestive system
Removal of lymph nodes searching for cancer
The surgeon examines and removes lymph nodes in the abdomen and finds cancer cells
Surgery to relieve signs and symptoms
Removing a part of the stomach can alleviate symptoms and symptoms of tumors in advanced gastric cancer patients. In this case, surgery can not cure advanced gastric cancer, but can be more comfortable
Surgery is risking bleeding and infection. If all or part of your stomach is removed, you may experience digestive problems.
Radiation therapy uses high power energy beams such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. The energy beam comes from a machine moving around you, so that you lie on the table.
Before surgery, gastric tumors can be shrunk and more easily removed using radiation therapy (neoadjuvant radiation). Radiation therapy can also be used after surgery (adjuvant radiation) to kill cancer cells that may be left around the stomach. Radiation is often combined with chemotherapy. In the case of advanced cancer, radiotherapy can be used to mitigate side effects caused by large tumors.
Radiation therapy to your stomach can cause diarrhea, indigestion, nausea and vomiting.
Chemotherapy is drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs move through the body and kill cancer cells that may spread beyond the stomach.
Chemotherapy can be done before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy), allowing the tumor to shrink and be removed more easily. Chemotherapy is also used after surgery to kill cancer cells that may remain in the body (adjuvant chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is used alone in advanced gastric cancer people to help alleviate symptoms and symptoms.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on which drug is used. Depending on the type of gastric cancer you have, you decide which chemotherapeutic drugs to receive.